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We are constantly being presented with stories about people being tortured across the world. But there have also been a number of victories for the anti-torture movement that show the fight against torture is one that is always worth fighting. We bring together five of the most powerful stories of success.
1. Yecenia Armenta Graciano
Mother of two Yecenia Armenta Graciano spent four long years in prison in northern Mexico, accused of murdering her husband and then tortured into signing a confession. For around 15 hours she was beaten, near-asphyxiated and raped until she signed the confession, while blind folded. No one questioned or checked her injuries and marks of torture and as time went on, her visible injuries faded and eventually disappeared.
After ongoing campaigning and pressure from several human rights organisations, the court allowed for two experts from the Independent Forensic Expert Group to examine Yecenia. The findings contradicted those of the Office of the Mexican Attorney-General, which said there was no evidence of torture. As a result, the court ordered the State Attorney to further investigate the case and Yecenia was finally released on 7 June 2016.
She has previously said: “Freedom is vital for any human being. Freedom helps us breathe, it helps us live fully. I also want to be free, free to be myself, just the way I am.” She can now finally embrace her freedom, and her children.
2. Jerryme Corre
29 March 2016 is now an historic date in the human rights history of the Philippines. It marks the date when a Philippines court made its first conviction under the country’s 2009 Anti-Torture Act. Bus driver Jerryme Corre spent more than four years in prison while on trial for crimes he has long denied committing.
While in custody Jerryme was brutally tortured by the police. He was electrocuted, punched and his life was constantly threatened. He finally received justice when the police officer involved was convicted and sentenced to a maximum of two years and one month imprisonment. The officer must also pay Jerryme damages amounting to 100,000 pesos. Another police officer faces the same charges but remains at large. The case gave the many human rights defenders working in the Philippines hope that things may be finally changing.
3. Omar Khadr
Omar Khadr spent almost all of his teenage years at Guantánamo Bay. In 2002, the 15-year-old Canadian, was captured by US forces during a firefight in Afghanistan. He was taken to Guantánamo, where he pleaded guilty to throwing a grenade that killed a US soldier, but later said he had only done so because he saw no other means of making it out of the notorious detention camp.
He was transferred to a Canadian jail in 2012 and 12 years and nine months after he was captured, was released on bail in May 2015. While in Guantánamo, Omar alleges he was frequently tortured, forced to stand in stress positions and prevented from sleeping for more than three hours at a time for 21 days. He remains the only child soldier to be prosecuted in a military commission for war crimes. Omar is currently studying to become an emergency medical responder and continuing the process to appeal his US war crimes convictions.
4. Rasmieh Odeh
Palestinian torture victim Rasmieh Odeh is accused of providing false statements on her immigration and naturalisation forms when applying for entry into the US. She checked “no” when asked whether she had ever been convicted but had been found guilty by an Israeli court of the bombing of an Israeli supermarket that killed two civilians in 1969. However, she denies she was involved in the bombings, saying she was tortured while in Israeli custody and forced to confess.
Having been originally convicted for immigration fraud in November 2014, Rasmieh’s conviction was overturned in February 2016 following an intervention from the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT) and five other organisations, who argued that evidence of Rasmieh’s torture traumatisation should be admissible in the court’s determination of her ability to engage with the immigration process.
Her case now returns to the District Judge for a possible retrial in what could be a hugely positive step forward in how PTSD is understood and evaluated in torture related cases. In commenting on the case, IRCT Secretary General, Victor Madrigal-Borloz said, “Victims of torture can find it extremely difficult to speak about their experiences. Around the world, courts and administrative bodies are finally starting to recognise this fact and give consequence to it by ensuring that their processes reflect the specific psychological situation and needs of victims.”
5. African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights’ resolution on the Right to Rehabilitation
The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights’ resolution on the Right to Rehabilitation was a landmark development for the anti-torture movement. The resolution calls on state parties to the African Charter to implement domestic laws prohibiting torture and to include clear provisions on torture victims’ right to rehabilitation. It is the first resolution adopted by the African Commission focusing specifically on the importance of the rehabilitation of torture victims.
Importantly, it specifies that states should ensure that all victims of torture and their dependents are offered appropriate medical care, have access to appropriate social rehabilitation and are provided with compensation. The IRCT, in collaboration with a group of international, regional and national NGOs, was involved in the development of the resolution, which the Commission adopted in Banjul, The Gambia in May 2015.
In our Fighting Torture series, we speak with people from a number of professions who work with and support survivors of torture. What does their work mean to them and what are the biggest challenges they see in the anti-torture and rehabilitation movement?
In the latest installment, we speak with Megan Berthold, an Assistant Professor at the University of Connecticut’s School of Social Work and a member of the Scientific Committee for the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims’ Scientific Symposium 2016. She speaks about the joy of seeing a torture victim receive protection as refugees (asylum in the US context), the fact that signatories of the UN Convention against Torture (UNCAT) continue to torture and the need for a global approach to educating people about torture and its effects.
Q: What is your profession and where do you work?
I am a social worker and since 2011, an Assistant Professor at the University of Connecticut’s School of Social Work in West Hartford, CT, USA.
Q: How long have you worked in torture rehabilitation and human rights?
I first started to work with refugees in 1984 as a volunteer teacher in the Tarshi Palkhiel Tibetan Refugee Camp in Nepal. I began to work with survivors of the Cambodian genocide, and other Southeast Asian trauma survivors in 1987 during my final Masters in Social Work internship. I spent several years as a clinician and trainer in a camp for Vietnamese refugees in the Philippines and for displaced Cambodians on the Thai-Cambodian border. In 1998 I began to work as a clinician and researcher with the Program for Torture Victims in Los Angeles, California and I have been co-chairing the US National Consortium of Torture Treatment Programs’ (NCTTP) Research and Data Project since 2008.
Q: How did you end up doing this work?
I “blame” it all on my brother Tim! During my last year of college, Tim was teaching in a Tibetan refugee camp in Nepal. He sent me long fascinating letters every week detailing his experiences and encouraging me to come teach in the camp as a volunteer when I graduated. By the time I went there, Tim had moved to another part of Asia, but he had known I would find the work meaningful. I found my passion working cross-culturally with refugees who had fled persecution in their homelands.
Q: Can you give us an example of how you have seen your work make a difference?
As a long time clinician at the Program for Torture Victims in Los Angeles I had the honour of accompanying hundreds of torture survivors on their journey of healing. Obtaining asylum in the US was a big part of that process for many. I will never forget a gay man I worked with who had been tortured by soldiers in Uganda and had seen his lover murdered by a mob. It took many hours of therapy for him to feel able to tell his story of persecution in his asylum hearing. I remember the day that I was sequestered waiting to provide expert witness testimony in his asylum hearing. I heard a shriek from down the hall and I rushed out of the waiting room. My client ran to greet me. He lifted me up off the floor as he informed me that the judge had granted him asylum. “I never have to go back,” he told me. “I’m safe!”
Q: How has this work changed since you started?
We have learned a lot about the various methods of torture and the multifaceted effects on individuals, their families, their communities and society at large. I perceive that there is an increased appreciation for a holistic approach to rehabilitation, one that assesses risk and resilience, is community-based, and targets co-occurring mental and chronic physical health conditions.
In the US, clinical social workers have historically been under-represented in the work of torture treatment centres. That has begun to change as we have trained more social workers to work with this population, building on the expertise of trauma-informed social workers and augmenting their ability to provide clinical services and forensic evaluations and testimony with survivors of torture.
The concept of vicarious or secondary trauma did not exist when I started in this field. We have come a long way towards understanding the secondary effects of human rights-based work in the area of torture rehabilitation (both in terms of vicarious trauma and vicarious resilience). Our sector also better understands the role of self-care (and cultural differences related to this concept) and how vital it is for rights-based practitioners and communities to be able to engage in this work over the long-term.
Q: What do you think are the biggest challenges facing the torture rehabilitation sector?
We need more rigorous research to examine the effectiveness of treatment. We need to know more about what interventions work, for whom, under what conditions, and when. As long as systemic oppression and torture continue to be widespread, there will be more survivors of torture (along with many who lose their lives). This is unacceptable and calls for increased and concerted efforts to address the structural and systemic forces that promote the perpetration of torture and other human rights violations.
We must go beyond local or national efforts to be successful. To me, this is one of the important benefits of having an international torture rehabilitation movement and the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT). That’s why the IRCT Scientific Symposium in December 2016 could not come at a better time.
Efforts to secure adequate funding and policies to support rehabilitation efforts will be furthered by a strong grounding in science. I expect that among the important outcomes will be the dissemination of valuable clinical and research knowledge about effective interventions within the torture treatment field and related sectors.
In addition, best practices from around the world regarding how to promote and secure the right to rehabilitation will be shared, enhancing the possibility of furthering this right.
Q: According to various surveys, many people do not think torture is such a big problem; that it is a thing of the past; or some even think that it is necessary. What would you say to them?
From where I sit, I am painfully aware that torture is a widespread problem and not a thing of the past. Within the NCTTP, we are serving survivors of torture who fled to the US from more than 120 countries. The majority of the countries from where these survivors fled are signatories to the UNCAT and yet they continue to torture.
Torture is never necessary, is not effective, and is always a violation of human rights. It has serious consequences for individuals, their families and society. It also has serious consequences for those who perpetrate torture and for those who turn a blind eye to its practice.
In order to create a world that promotes and realises the rights of all humans, we must expose the practice of torture, condemn it, and actively work to end it in all its forms. I invite you to join me, the UNCAT, the NCTTP and the IRCT, and millions of activists and survivors worldwide in this effort.
Q: And finally, many of us do care about torture survivors and victims. How can we support the anti-torture/torture rehabilitation movement?
There are many avenues available to support the anti-torture/torture rehabilitation movement. In addition to better educating ourselves about torture and its effects, we can educate our families, neighbours and the public at large. We can work with others within our own sectors to support the movement, perhaps by joining with the USHRN or a similar network. We can be part of person-centred organised approaches against structural forces and state-led actions that contribute to the problem of torture. Finally, we can provide financial or volunteer support to a torture rehabilitation programme in our region or country.
To find out more about the IRCT Scientific Symposium and Scientific Committee, visit www.irctsymposium2016.irct.org/
There is no doubt that 2016 will be another significant year for the global torture rehabilitation movement, presenting both challenges and opportunities for the sector. In this blog, we look at what 2016 has in store for us, listing some of the key highlights and challenges coming up.
Violence in connection with upcoming elections
From Samoa to Bolivia, millions of people around the world will be participating in elections this year. While most elections are expected to be peaceful, countries like Uganda and Haiti have both seen an increase in violence and human rights violations in connection with their upcoming elections. In Haiti the violence intensified after widespread allegations of fraud, and the country’s presidential runoff was eventually cancelled. In Uganda, the country’s former prime minister and current presidential candidate, Amama Mbabazi, recently accused President Yoweri Museveni of using murder, torture and violence to curtail growing support for the opposition.
Looking elsewhere, Gambia, which has a long record of torture and other human rights violations, is also due for an election in 2016, and in the DRC and Somalia there are concerns that upcoming elections could trigger violence and unrest.
The pre-election violence is a clear reminder of the need to take precautionary measures and to be ready to respond with investigation and rehabilitation.
An exhibition: Torture – The International Outlaw
Marking last year’s Human Rights Day, a group of anti-torture organisations launched an exhibition called ‘Torture – The International Outlaw’ at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. The exhibition showcases the history and the hope found in the fight against torture and gives visitors a chance to learn about torture survivors’ stories. Later this year, Europeans will also get a chance to visit the exhibition when it opens in Brussels and then goes on the road to be displayed at several key events in 2016.
10 years of OPCAT
In June this year it will be 10 years since the United Nations’ Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment – also known as OPCAT – entered into force.
The OPCAT is one of the most important international legal instruments in the protection and prevention of torture around the world. Under the OPCAT, the United Nations’ Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (SPT) obtains unrestricted access to places around the world where persons may be deprived of their liberty, their installations and facilities and to all relevant information.
26 June is the UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture. On this date, anti-torture organisations and human rights activists around the world organise campaigns, activities and other events in support of torture survivors and in commemoration of victims.
Every year, there are a wide array of events, and this year is no exception. For example, the IRCT and its members will be organising lots of activities as part of their global 26 June campaign. The best way to stay up to date with upcoming events is to follow the IRCT on Facebook and Twitter.
Olympics: Torture and ill treatment of detainees in Brazil
With only six months to go until the opening ceremony in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil has bigger things to worry about than getting ready for the 2016 Olympics. As Human Rights watch noted in its latest World Report, “chronic human rights problems plague Brazil, including unlawful police killings, prison overcrowding, and torture and ill-treatment of detainees.”
Following a visit in October 2015 by the United Nations Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (SPT), the head of the delegation and Secretary-General of the IRCT Víctor Madrigal-Borloz noted that while Brazil had made efforts to tackle the problems, many of the issues the SPT highlighted during its visit in 2011 had still not been addressed.
The preparations for the Olympics have also been linked to widespread human rights abuses. Unfortunately, it is not the first time that Brazil’s human rights record has been criticised in connection with a global sports event. According to the Brazilian Association of Investigative Journalism, the country’s state security forces injured or detained 178 journalists who covered demonstrations in various parts of the country in the year leading up to the 2014 Football World Cup.
Electing a new Special Rapporteur on Torture
Also in 2016, the UN Human Rights Council will be electing a new Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (SRT). As only the sixth person to take on this important role, the new SRT will replace Argentinian human rights lawyer and professor, Juan Méndez who has been the SRT since 2010. The election will take place in September as part of the UN Human Rights Council’s September session.
The new SRT will be taking office at a time when the anti-torture movement is increasingly focused on putting victims at the centre of its work.
Delivering on the Right to Rehabilitation through science
The International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT) and Mexican rehabilitation centre Colectivo Contra la Tortura (CCTI) are hosting a global interdisciplinary scientific symposium from 5 to 7 December in Mexico City.
The Symposium, which is the tenth of its kind, is expected to be a unique and exciting opportunity for the global torture rehabilitation sector to come together to exchange experiences and research on developments in the rehabilitation of survivors of torture. The event will bring together medical professionals, researchers and experts from within the torture rehabilitation sector, as well as those working in closely related sectors, such as public mental health, violence against women and protecting persons with disabilities.
To find out more go to: www.irctsymposium2016.irct.org
As we reach the end of 2015, we at World Without Torture look back at some of the stories we covered in the last year.
It has been a busy year where we have blogged about a diverse mix of topics so if some of your favourites are missing, please feel free to mention them in the comments.
2015 was a year of tragedies and triumphs, where we witnessed ongoing human suffering but also how defiant and determined people can be in the face of adversity. Through all of this, your support and participation in the fight to ensure human rights is something that we continue to appreciate enormously.
We look forward to seeing you in 2016 and wish you a very Happy New Year!
7 myths about torture
The use of torture is a contentious topic that has caused a myriad of heated arguments between those who believe the practice can be justified and those who say that it is a serious human rights violation that can never be tolerated. In this blog we debunked seven of the most common myths about torture.
Taking a creative approach to 26 June
Just as we had seen in previous years, creativity played a big role in marking the UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture on 26 June. Thousands of people across the globe joined the torture rehabilitation movement in showcasing both the resilience and creativity of survivors and caregivers alike. We shared some images from the day, check them out here.
Forced virginity testing still a problem
Forced virginity testing is a serious human rights violation and at its worst it constitutes rape and torture. This is how a group of experts described the highly controversial practice that is used to determine a woman’s virginity, when at the start of 2015, Indonesia made headlines around the world when it emerged that the national government subjected female applicants for Indonesia’s National Police to “discriminatory and degrading virginity tests.” Read the full story here.
On the Forefront: Helping torture survivors in San Diego
At IRCT member centre, Survivors of Torture International (SURVIVORS) it is the little things that matter. Something as small as a bus ticket can mean the difference between treatment and no treatment for torture victims. In a year where funding cuts threatened to close and did close many rehabilitation centres, we spoke to SURVIVORS staff to find out how these cuts affect both services and clients. Read the full blog here.
From Cameroon to Pakistan – Empowering female victims of torture and rape
Every day across the globe, women and girls are tortured and ill-treated. For some, rape is part of their ordeal and their rehabilitation path is often solitary, while governments, communities and families struggle to respond to their needs. In this blog we looked at how, with the support of a generous donor, 16 IRCT rehabilitation centres in 14 countries are helping thousands of these women and girls to take control of their lives through a range of activities.
26 June Campaign: How two survivors of Rwandan Genocide overcame the scars of the past
As part of the 26 June Campaign we decided it was time to put a face to torture victims and reclaim their need for and right to rehabilitation – a right guaranteed under the UN Convention against Torture. This blog is about Bernard and Emmanuel, two men who have worked with rehabilitation centres to rebuild their lives following the torture and trauma they endured during the Rwandan Genocide.
Treating refugees: How NGOs are supporting refugees in Serbia
Hundreds of thousands of refugees from Syria and Afghanistan have already passed through Serbia as they continue on their trek to EU countries such as Germany, Austria and Norway. We spoke to Bojana Trivuncic, a psychologist and project manager at Serbian centre International Aid Network (IAN), which has been providing medical first aid and psychosocial support to refugees through a Mobile Team Unit in parks and shelters in Belgrade and at the Croatian border. Read more about IAN’s work here.
Four women in the fight against torture
To mark International Women’s Day on 8 March, we remembered the struggles women have endured around the world and celebrated their achievements by focusing on four inspirational women. These four women have seen or experienced the horrors of torture as an advocate, a caregiver and a victim. Read the full blog here.
An alternative way to treat victims of torture
“I am tired of it, tired of my body. Tired of my soul. I can only see that it’s getting more and more sick as time goes by.” A lot of research has been done on the link between physical exercise and mental health. Yet the focus has largely been on how an active lifestyle may help alleviate symptoms such as depression and chronic pain. In this blog we learned how a group of Danish researchers have gone in a different direction, introducing traumatised refugees to the relatively unknown Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT).
Fighting Torture: Q&A
Towards the end of the year we kicked off our Fighting Torture Q&A series, with an interview with Asger Kjærum from the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT) about his work as a human rights advocate, how dinner conversations at home shaped his interest in the health and human rights sectors and how torture is still prevalent in too many countries around the world. Read the full blog here.
Voices from Nepal: Life amid the rubble and the ruins
In April 2015 a devastating earthquake ripped through Nepal, leaving a trail of death and destruction. With a death toll in the thousands and more casualties to come, the impoverished kingdom struggled to provide shelter and relief to the survivors. Our blog at the time shared the belief of IRCT member centre, Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) that Nepal’s need for help extended far beyond the immediate aid efforts. Read more here.
Europe’s Narrow Lead on Prosecuting CIA Torture
In August, regular guest blogger Aisha Maniar of the London Guantánamo Campaign wrote about the few, but encouraging efforts in Europe to prosecute those believed to have been complicit in the notorious CIA rendition programme. Find out more here.
“During the ceremony I laughed again, and I became aware of my desire to teach everybody [about human rights].”
Encouraging and supporting torture survivors in telling their stories has long been recognised as an important element of rehabilitation. However, a new study on the effectiveness of testimonial therapy (TT) on the social participation and wellbeing of Indian survivors of torture and organised violence has found that the process can also bring communities together and lead to participants becoming human rights activists.
TT is a human rights-based psychosocial intervention, which can be used by non-professional counsellors. This means it can be especially useful in countries where there are not many trained psychotherapists or social workers.
The survivors tell their story, which is recorded and jointly edited by a counsellor, a note taker and the survivors themselves. The story is then presented to the survivors in a testimony ceremony, where they are honoured in front of their community.
If the survivors feel comfortable with it, their story will then be used as part of awareness-raising and advocacy activities.
“After [receiving] testimonial therapy I became a human rights activist. I now work in the village to promote human rights awareness by encouraging the villagers to report any incidence of ill-treatment or other problems,” explained one participant.
The study, which was carried out by researchers affiliated with DIGNITY – Danish Institute Against Torture, the Peoples Vigilance Committee on Human Rights (PVCHR) and the University of Copenhagen focuses on a type of TT adapted to the Indian context, which has a strong community celebration approach.
The ceremony in the community marks the the turning point in the healing process, where the person makes the transition from the role of torture victim, to an empowered and recognised survivor of torture.
Community workers and human rights activists working with PVCHR chose 474 Indian survivors of torture and ill treatment from the regions of Uttar, Pradesh and Jharkhand for the study, and they received TT from 2010 to 2012.
The study found that the participants showed huge improvements in social and psychological wellbeing. The proportion of participants with a high risk of depression decreased from 89.6% initially to 30.8% one to two months after the last session.
By sharing their trauma story, survivors could overcome their distress and become more self-confident. They were also better able to take on more responsibility in their family and community.
“Before testimony [therapy] victims feel lonely and they do not tell their pain to anybody… But after testimony therapy I [put] outside my pain and share my story to encourage others. It is [a] very good process to give honor in front of [the] community and I feel that I have [got] my own dignity.”
While the study found that TT is indeed an effect method of rehabilitation, it also recommends that going forward more research needs to be done on how to build on its potential to empower and mobilise entire communities.
To read the latest issue of Torture Journal, click here.
Hundreds of thousands of refugees from Syria and Afghanistan have already passed through Serbia as they continue on their trek to EU countries such as Germany, Austria and Norway. Despite the fact that weather conditions are rapidly deteriorating, the numbers are not decreasing. We spoke to Bojana Trivuncic, a psychologist and project manager at the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims’ (IRCT) Serbian member centre International Aid Network (IAN), which has been providing medical first aid and psychosocial support to refugees through a Mobile Team Unit in parks and shelters in Belgrade and at the Croatian border.
“I have an image in my head of a 16-year-old Afghan boy, who is travelling alone. He was beaten by ISIS on the border of Iran and Pakistan. He has just 26 euro and a ruined pair of shoes. I keep thinking about that boy. How is he going to pass through two or three more countries without money?”
Bojana has many similar stories that have stayed with her. She has been working as a psychologist with IAN’s Mobile Team Unit, along with a medical doctor, nurse and field manager since July, dealing with some of the many refugees that pass through Serbia in less than 24 hours.
As there are now just a small number of refugees in Belgrade, the Mobile Team Unit makes the four-hour round trip to the border each day.
“At the moment we are working with refugees at the Berkasovo-Babska border crossing. At the beginning we worked in a park in Belgrade, which was the biggest informal gathering place of refugees, and in Principovac, a refugee shelter near the Croatian border.”
While many organisations provide medical and legal aid to refugees, IAN is the only one providing psychological support. Bojana explains that the time the unit spends with each person depends on whether the border is open or not.
“If the border is open they are in the hurry to cross it. Refugees don’t have time to talk. But if they are waiting for the border to open or are settled in a shelter, the situation is completely different. They have a great need to share their story and are very thankful for understanding and sympathy.”
More than 218,000 migrants and refugees crossed the Mediterranean to Europe in October, according to the UNHCR. This almost equalled the number of crossings for all of 2014. Many of the refugees passing through Serbia have taken a boat from Turkey to Greece and travelled through Macedonia.
“They have to pay 1,200 euro per person to get on the boat. Very often the boats are overcrowded and sink, and sometimes they are in the sea for hours before they are rescued. Many smugglers throw their belongings in the sea, because the boat is too heavy. Some of them told me, ‘You look death in the eyes’, says Bojana.
The most common alternative path for refugees is through Bulgaria, especially for those fleeing Afghanistan. This has proven to be a dangerous route as many of the people Bojana has spoken to allege they have been put in prison for crossing the border illegally and the police have beaten them and stolen their money and phones. Unsurprisingly, many also allege they are victims of torture.
“Some of them were tortured in the country of origin and during their transit in Iran and Bulgaria. In Syria for example, many refugees were tortured in some kind of prison by members of President Bashar al-Assad’s regime. The methods are brutal. Many of them told me that they were tortured with electro shocks. In Afghanistan, many refugees were tortured by ISIS or the Taliban,” explains Bojana.
It is clear that these refugees need rehabilitation services, but for the time being their focus is on getting to safety and on starting a new life, particularly as winter starts to close in.
“They are helpless, looking for a better life, frightened that they are going to be returned (Afghans) or that Germany is going to close the border. They have only one wish, to continue with their journey and to reach an EU country,” says Bojana.
“When basic needs are not satisfied, like food, clothes and shelter, a person cannot deal with emotions or trauma. For me it is ok to be there for them, to help them with their basic needs, and of course to be there for them if they want to talk, to share their problems and traumatic experiences, and to calm them if they are fearful.”
In her latest blog, guest blogger Aisha Maniar of the London Guantánamo Campaign writes about the few, but encouraging efforts in Europe to prosecute those believed to have been complicit in the notorious CIA rendition programme.
The December 2014 publication of the redacted findings and conclusions of the US Senate Select Committee investigation into the CIA’s use of torture shed further light on and confirmed some of the worst practices of the extraordinary rendition programme, leading to calls for prosecution of those involved.
Eight months on, little has changed. On 24 June, a coalition of over 100 groups worldwide sent a letter to the UN Human Rights Council calling for accountability, prosecution and reparations for CIA torture.
Throughout the CIA’s long history of ‘coercive forms of interrogation’, prosecutions have been few. On the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, however, there have been some encouraging moves against those believed to have been involved in the rendition programme.
On 23 June, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) heard a case brought against Italy by an Egyptian national for its collusion in his abduction and ‘rendition’ to Egypt in 2003 where he was detained illegally and tortured for several months. Italy denies the claims and the judgment is pending, but it is a unique case as in 2012, in domestic proceedings, the Italian Supreme Court’s final judgment in the related criminal case saw 23 US citizens convicted in absentia for his kidnapping; prison sentences and fines were imposed.
This is the first and only successful prosecution against the CIA’s extraordinary rendition programme anywhere. The ramifications of this hit home a year later, in 2013, when convicted former CIA operative Robert Seldon Lady was arrested, as he transited through Panama, pending extradition to Italy to serve his eight-year sentence, although he was released the next day. He has admitted his role in the operation and that it was illegal.
This is the third such case to be heard before the ECtHR; previous cases heard against Macedonia and Poland have found both states guilty of breaches of the absolute prohibition on torture under the European Convention on Human Rights, with both ordered to pay compensation. Further cases are pending against Romania and Lithuania.
Aside from one other case recently reopened before the African Commission for Human and People’s Rights, following new revelations against Djibouti, this is as far as international legal efforts to prosecute extraordinary rendition have gotten. Although neither court has jurisdiction over the US, these cases reveal the global extent of the extraordinary rendition programme, which would have been impossible without the collusion of so many states.
The Torture Report findings have also led the European Parliament to announce the reopening of its investigation into member state complicity in rendition in February 2015 and urging states to investigate and prosecute allegations.
Domestic efforts are still underway in some parts of Europe. As part of an ongoing criminal investigation into at least six alleged torture flights through Scottish airspace, police in Scotland are seeking access to a full non-redacted copy of the Torture Report.
In Spain, an ongoing criminal investigation brought by a number of former Guantánamo prisoners under universal jurisdiction laws was recently closed following restrictive changes to the law, but a number of NGOs have appealed this decision.
There is still much work to be done. Elsewhere, political pressure and state secrecy have seen prosecutions end prematurely or shut down. Denial remains a popular option and impunity reigns.
While the focus is on the US, the involvement of its allies must not be ignored. Investigation, prosecution and accountability matter, not just to draw a line under the crimes of the past, but to ensure they are not still occurring or will again in future.
Three months after a series of devastating earthquakes shook Nepal to its core, the country is still scrambling to rebuild. According to Red Cross, one in four Nepalese have been affected, many of whom are suffering from the trauma that arises from experiencing a natural disaster this size. Along with other organisations, two IRCT members are on the ground, working tirelessly to support victims of the earthquake with psychological first aid.
April’s earthquakes took the lives of more than 8,000 Nepalese and left hundreds of thousands injured and homeless.
“Many people lost their life when their houses collapsed,” Jamuna Poudyal from Kathmandu based organisation Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) told us back in April, trying to comprehend the sheer scale of the disaster.
“People in the Kathmandu Valley still feel that their life is in danger because of the many aftershocks,” she explained.
Three months on and people are still suffering from psychological problems, while trying to rebuild their lives.
Responding to the need for Psychological First Aid (PFA), CVICT and another local torture rehabilitation centre Transcultural Psychosocial Organization Nepal (TPO Nepal) are on the ground, supporting thousands of earthquake victims.
With staff working across the major affected districts, the two centres have helped thousands of victims, by offering various services such as PFA, clinical support and psychosocial counselling.
“We train mental health and psychosocial support frontline workers in Psychological First Aid that includes basic psychosocial support, listening skills and referrals,” explains TPO Nepal’s Executive Manager Suraj Koirala, “they then train non-mental health experts, such as volunteers, NGO staff, teachers, health workers and social workers in psychological first aid and other mental health and psychosocial care.”
By including training in its earthquake response, TPO Nepal is able to address the urgent and short-term psychological needs of those affected. At this point, the centre has already reached out to more than 10,000 people.
TPO Nepal is also operating a toll free helpline for victims of the earthquake. Managed by psychosocial counsellors, the helpline offers support to people in need.
“We encourage people to call the number if they experience emotional distress or grief; feel weak or have a lot of body pains; or if they are struggling with thoughts about hurting themselves; or if there are psychosocial problems in the family,” explains Suraj.
While the world’s attention is no longer on Nepal, organisations like CVICT and TPO Nepal continue to help people whose lives were shattered by the earthquakes.
“The demand for mental health and psychosocial services continues to be high. These people have experienced death and destruction and now they are trying to rebuild their lives. But without mental health and psychosocial support they may not overcome their trauma,” notes Suraj.
Every day and across the globe, women and girls are tortured and ill-treated. For some, rape is part of their ordeal and their rehabilitation path is often solitary, while governments, communities and families struggle to respond to their needs. With the support of a generous donor, 16 IRCT rehabilitation centres in 14 countries are helping thousands of these women and girls to take control of their lives through a range of activities.
Can design and sewing workshops contribute to the rehabilitation and empowerment of female victims of torture and sexual violence? If you ask two torture rehabilitation centres in Cameroon and Pakistan, the answer is yes.
For the past year, the centres have organised self-help workshops and activities with focus on how to generate income aimed at women who have been subjected to various human rights violations. The idea is to empower them to become economically independent and take control of their lives – something that also has a positive effect on their self-esteem.
The training and support provided by the programmes in Cameroon and Pakistan have proven very popular. Last year, more than 1,600 women and girls participated in an array of activities that fit with the needs of their community, including IT training, music lessons, beautician courses and small-business management.
The two centres are not the only IRCT members to run these types of events. Across the world, another 14 rehabilitation centres have implemented similar projects.
Centres in India, Iraq, Lebanon and South Africa have organised workshops led by doctors and social workers to discuss prevention and the consequences of sexual violence on women’s health, while a centre in Sierra Leone is practicing healing ceremonies to alleviate the traumatic memories of the victims and promote peace and reconciliation within the community.
As a survivor who is part of the program in Iraq, explained: “When I arrived at the centre I felt that my family and I were drowning in the sea. The centre has been like a ship that has led us to the beach where we could start a new life.”
At another centre, a woman described how she “was completely demoralised and overwhelmed by suicidal thoughts” when she came to the centre. “I thought my life was worthless after facing the stigma of having been raped twice. However, the workers at the centre helped me get my life back,” she told.
Women and girls’ empowerment is crucial to creating better and prosperous societies, but gender equality is far from a reality in many places. Women’s rights continue to be neglected with the United Nations estimating that as many as 35% of women worldwide have experienced some form of violence.
Empowerment is widely considered a very effective approach to treat and support victims of violence. Whether it is training activities and seminars to help women become economically independent or treatment and healing to help them recover from their trauma, there is a great need to support female victims of torture and ill-treatment. With so many women worldwide having experienced some form of violence, this response must equal the size of this global problem.
So far the 16 IRCT members have treated more than 3,000 women and 1,200 children subjected to torture and sexual violence. We are still to see how many small business owners or beauticians the events and seminars have fostered, but for many in Cameroon and Pakistan things are looking brighter.
“More than one million refugees have come to the US, fleeing torture and political violence,” begins Refuge: Caring for Survivors of Torture, an outstanding new documentary from the Refuge Media Project.
The vast numbers are staggering, but what makes a greater impression in this stand-out documentary are the small, individual stories from survivors and those who offer them care and support as they resettle in the US.
Ben Achtenberg, project director at the Refuge Media Project and producer/director of Refuge, says the film – seven years in the making – came about as his general interest in healthcare and mental health issues drew him to organisations and healthcare providers that offer support to survivors in the US. Previously, he was nominated for an Oscar for the film Code Gray: Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing, which he produced and served as cinematographer. Mr Achtenberg also won the 2009 IRCT Film Competition for his 30-second public service announcement.
“During the same period, I had started contributing to organizations that work with survivors and, in particular, was receiving the newsletters of Center for Victims of Torture in Minneapolis and similar groups around the country, about their work with survivors. At some point, it clicked that this was the film I should focus on.”
The stories presented in the approximately one-hour film are diverse, from a physician from Guatemala to an older man from Liberia who wishes to move his daughter to the US. They have different stories of torture, different stories of migration to the US, but they have all sought refuge and have found their way to the various featured torture treatment programmes, many of which are IRCT members. (A full list of organisations featured in the film can be found on their website)
Through the stories of survivors, both devastating and inspiring, we take home still another call to action – that healthcare professionals will, in fact, see a survivor of torture during their work, and they need to know what to look for and how to approach it so that the person can receive appropriate care.
“People who have survived torture are living everywhere in our communities, though you may not know who they are,” says Mr Achtenberg. “If you’re in or going into a healthcare or human services profession, you will encounter torture survivors in your client population. How you deal with them can have an impact on their ability to thrive in their new communities.”
It’s a delicate and caring relationship between the health professionals – doctors, therapists, social workers – and the survivors of torture they treat. “It’s a doctor that can listen to you and make you feel like you’re a human being,” says one survivor in the film. Another describes a mural painted by survivors at a centre in Boston: “We come from our countries, swimming across and arrive here naked, but you pick us up and give us back what we have lost.”
This wonderful film offers a unique perspective into the world of torture survivors, their experiences and reservations opening up, and into the world of the care-givers, as they approach the formidable task of helping them recover their dignity and life.